Cyber defence capabilities and the use of “cyber force” in an offensive way is currently under construction in the different EU states. It is, however, safe to assume that EU states already possess certain levels of offensive capacities with the perspective of reaching a wide range of cyber defensive and offensive capabilities in the near future.
During the last two decades, Turkey’s security strategy in the Middle East has been directed by ruling domestic actors, in particular President Erdogan and the AKP party. Over the years, the AKP party has managed to increase its influence in the country’s state apparatus, formerly dominated by the Kemalist secular establishment.
Since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, followed by economic sanctions imposed by the West, Russia’s historical influence in the South Caucasus region has been challenged, leading the former USSR power to lose its influence over neighbouring countries as well as its weight in the economy.
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